Authors of section

Authors

Alex Vaccaro, Frank Kandziora, Michael Fehlings, Rajasekaran Shanmughanathan

Executive Editor

Luiz Vialle

General Editor

German Ochoa (in memoriam)

Open all credits

Posterior long segment fixation

1. Introduction

Preliminary remarks

B2 injuries indicate a bony and/or ligamentary failure of the posterior tension band together with a Type A fracture of the vertebral body. Type A fracture should be classified separately as management depends on both.

Thoracic and lumbar fractures: Posterior long segment fixation

Decompression

In cases where neurological deficit is observed and compression of the spinal canal is assumed, decompression has to be performed. It should be understood that this is a step that can also result in deterioration of neurology unless very meticulously performed.
Decompression can be performed anteriorly or posteriorly. Posteriorly, decompression can be indirect or direct. Indirect decompression may be tried before performing direct decompression. Please refer to Decompression techniques for a detailed discussion of indications for the posterior decompression techniques. ( Posterior decompression)

Repair of dural laceration

More details on repair of dural laceration can be found here.

2. Patient preparation and approach

The posterior open approach to the midline is used together with the appropriate patient preparation.

posterior short segment fixation with pedicle screws

3. Closed reduction

Primary reduction is performed by positioning of the patient onto a frame to create lordosis.

Thoracic and lumbar fractures: Posterior short segment fixation with pedicle screws

4. Reduction with pedicle screws

Preliminary remarks

Due to the fact that bilateral instrumentation is necessary in all cases, all steps described below are repeated on the opposite side, unless stated otherwise.

Thoracic and lumbar fractures: Posterior long segment fixation

Pedicle screw insertion

In patients with B2 injury with A3/A4 fractures of the vertebral body at the thoracic level, posterior long segment fixation is performed to provide better reduction forces. Fixation of multiple spinal segments does not affect functionality in the thoracic spine due to the presence of rigid rib cage.

In this technique, pedicle screws are inserted two levels above and below the fractured level on both sides.

This is essential in rotationally unstable injuries where stress on the posterior implants is high. ( Pedicle screw insertion)

Thoracic and lumbar fractures: Posterior long segment fixation

Rod contouring

The contouring of the rod depends on the site of the fracture. A rod contoured in mild kyphosis is chosen for fractures from T1-T10. A straight or a slightly lordotic rod is chosen for fractures from T11-L1, and a rod contoured to lordosis is chosen for lumbar fractures.

Thoracic and lumbar fractures: Posterior long segment fixation

Rod insertion

The rod is inserted sequentially, either from distal to proximal or the other way round. The distal screw heads are tightened.

The rod is then inserted into the proximal screw heads without tightening.

Proper rod contouring helps in achieving appropriate sagittal alignment.

Thoracic and lumbar fractures: Posterior long segment fixation

Decompression

If it is decided to perform an indirect decompression, this is done at this stage. If indirect decompression proves to be insufficient, a direct decompression eg, posterior or transpedicular decompression are undertaken. Refer to the Posterior Decompression techniques for detailed instructions. ( Posterior Decompression)

Thoracic and lumbar fractures: Posterior short segment fixation with pedicle screws

Distraction (ligamentotaxis)

With the help of a distractor, the proximal screws are distracted along the rod. This is done on both sides simultaneously.

Thoracic and lumbar fractures: Posterior long segment fixation

Pitfall: Avoid overdistraction

Care should be taken to avoid overdistraction in type B2 fractures.

The screw heads are tightened with the inner nuts to secure the reduction achieved.

Thoracic and lumbar fractures: Posterior long segment fixation

Cross links are applied at the top and bottom of the construct to provide biomechanical stability. In type A injuries one cross link might be sufficient.

Thoracic and lumbar fractures: Posterior long segment fixation

The final construct is shown from a lateral view

Thoracic and lumbar fractures: Posterior long segment fixation

5. Fusion

Decision

Although fusion was routinely performed for all spinal fractures, its indications are now being restricted to fractures that are highly unstable.

Nonfusion fixations can be performed for A3, A4, and B1 type injuries.
Fusion is routinely performed for A2, B2, B3, and all C injuries as they are unstable injuries with extensive soft tissue and ligamentous disruption.

If the surgeon plans for a fusion, the facet capsule is excised and the joint cartilage surfaces are denuded/curetted.

Thoracic and lumbar fractures: Posterior long segment fixation

Pieces of bone graft (autograft, allograft) are inserted into the decorticated facet joint for fusion.

Thoracic and lumbar fractures: Posterior long segment fixation

6. Intraoperative imaging

Prior to wound closure, intraoperative imaging is performed to check the adequacy of reduction, position, and length of screws and the overall coronal and sagittal spinal alignment.

Thoracic and lumbar fractures: Posterior long segment fixation

7. Aftercare for posterior procedures

Patients are made to sit up in the bed on the first day after surgery. Bracing is optional. Patients with intact neurological status are made to stand and walk on the second day after surgery. Patients can be discharged when medically stable or sent to a rehabilitation center if further care is necessary. This depends on the comfort levels and presence of other associated injuries.

Thoracic and lumbar fractures: Aftercare for anterior procedures

Patients are generally followed with periodical x-rays at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. Normally, 5-10 degrees of loss of kyphosis can be observed within the first 6 months, which does not affect the functional outcomes. For nonfusion surgeries, the implants can be removed once fusion is confirmed.

Thoracic and lumbar fractures: Aftercare for posterior procedures