The first edition was created by Nicolas Dea (Canada), and Jeremy Reynolds (UK), with Luiz Vialle (Brazil) as editor.
This module is based on current clinical principles, practices, and available evidence, and supports spine surgeons’ day-to-day treatment, planning, learning, and teaching. The module joins existing content on metastatic lesions and completes the AO Surgery reference chapter on tumors.
The new module of primary tumors details treatments tailored to benign and malignant tumors in various segments of the spine. Additionally, the module offers tumor definitions, treatment indications, guides to patient positioning, and approaches.