Authors of section

Author

Mary Sarah Bergh

Executive Editor

Amy Kapatkin

General Editor

Noel Moens

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Closed reduction

1. Principles

This procedure is most commonly used for acute physeal fractures or incomplete fractures of the physis.

The distal femoral physis has an irregular "W" shape. Reduction is rarely maintained unless implants are placed. This technique is most often used for percutaneous pin placement.

The dog distal femoral physis has an irregular "W" shape

2. Closed reduction

Reduction and preliminary fixation

With the patient under general anesthesia, the stifle joint is flexed, and the tarsus is extended, to reduce tension on the gastrocnemius mechanism. With the femur stabilized, the tibia is pulled cranially, which is used to push the distal fragment into reduction. The stifle is then extended to lock the fragments into position.

With the femur of the dog stabilized, the tibia is pulled cranially, which is used to push the distal fragment into reduction

Radiographs or fluoroscopy should be taken to confirm adequate reduction of the fracture.

Note: This may be sufficient if the physeal fracture was incomplete. Percutaneous pin placement will be needed in almost all cases to maintain reduction.

Radiographs should be taken to confirm adequate reduction of the fracture of a dog distal femur