Authors of section


Khairul Faizi Mohammad, Brad Yoo

Executive Editors

Markku T Nousiainen, Richard Buckley

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Diaphyseal and extraarticular end segment fractures of the proximal hallux


These are proximal hallux fractures not involving the articular surface.

There are several possible configurations, including both simple and multifragmentary patterns.

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Mechanism of the injury

A spectrum of violence can result in this fracture.

Low energy typically results in simple fractures, and high energy typically results in multifragmentary fractures.


AP and lateral oblique views are sufficient for diagnosis and treatment.

D400 Definition
Lateral oblique X-ray


The clinical picture includes swelling, ecchymosis, and pain with range of motion. In some fractures, a deformity may be present.

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