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Carl-Peter Cornelius, Nils Gellrich, Søren Hillerup, Kenji Kusumoto, Warren Schubert

Executive Editors

Edward Ellis III, Kazuo Shimozato

General Editor

Daniel Buchbinder

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NOE, Type I


In unilateral Markowitz type I fractures, there is a single large NOE fragment bearing the medial canthal tendon.

Diagnosis of NOE fractures

Involvement of the nasal bone
The nasal bone may also be involved and, in cases of comminution, may not provide adequate dorsal support to the nasal bridge.

Diagnosis of NOE fractures


The nasoorbitoethmoidal (NOE) fracture refers to injuries involving the area of confluence of the nose, orbit, ethmoids, the base of the frontal sinus, and the floor of the anterior cranial base. The area includes the insertion of the medial canthal tendon(s). NOE fractures, by definition, are a different entity than isolated nasal bone fractures. However, they are often associated with fractures of the nasal bones.

NOE fractures are most commonly classified according to Markowitz BL, Manson PN, Sargent L, et al (1991) Management of the medial canthal tendon in nasoethmoid orbital fractures: the importance of the central fragment in classification and treatment. Plast Reconstr Surg. 87(5):843-53:

  • Type I
  • Type II
  • Type III

These can be unilateral or bilateral injuries.

Diagnosis of NOE fractures

Involvement of buttresses
NOE complex fractures involve the medial vertical (nasomaxillary) buttresses of the facial skeleton. Click here for further details on buttresses.

Diagnosis of NOE fractures

Association with frontal sinus fractures
NOE fractures are often associated with frontal sinus fractures.

Diagnosis of NOE fractures
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