Complete biarticular fractures originate from the mid-sagittal groove of the proximal phalanx and extend through the entire proximal phalanx into the pastern joint. These fractures can be seen in any breed, but most typically in racing breeds.
Different configurations can be encountered; in some cases the dorsal fracture line spirals laterally or medially and unites with the palmar/plantar sagittal fracture line.
Clinical signs and imaging
Clinical signs are usually acute severe lameness with an effusion of the fetlock joint and soft-tissue swelling. A complete radiographic series is required to properly evaluate the full extent of the fracture and to rule out comminuted fractures and/or additional injuries.
Computed tomography, if available, is a valuable asset in the preoperative planning phase.