Authors of section


Alan Ruggles

Executive Editor

Jörg Auer

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Clinical and radiographic examination

1. Clinical signs

Depending on the severity of the fracture, the clinical signs will vary from subtle to severe. Typically there is soft-tissue swelling of the stifle region due to the trauma which causes the fracture.
Because the soft-tissue injury is present the fracture may be overlooked due to radiographs not always being taken initially.
Joint effusion is present with most articular fractures.

etiology and fracture classification

2. Radiographaphy

If a patellar fracture is suspected, 3 radiographic views are required:

  • Lateromedial
  • Caudocranial
  • Tangential (as shown in the figure)
etiology and fracture classification

Ultrasonography is useful to determine injury of soft-tissue structures of the stifle. Additionally ultrasound examination is useful in identifying fractures of the patella and injury to the articular surface.

etiology and fracture classification