Fractures of the vertical part of the mandibular branch are rare. They can occur as fractures with minimal dislocation but also as unstable fractures with more severe dislocation, which may occur when a horse has its head wedged between two solid objects and withdraws forcefully. In most cases at least some comminution is present.
Fractures that involve the temporomandibular joint are usually associated with severe clinical signs.
CT imaging is strongly recommended and helps with fracture identification.