Authors of section


Anton Fürst

Executive Editor

Jörg Auer

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Approach to vertical ramus

A skin incision is placed on the ventral and caudal aspect of the vertical ramus.

approach to vertical ramus

Care should be taken to prevent damage to the facial nerve, parotid salivary duct, veins and arteries. They are protected by a penrose drain.

approach to vertical ramus