The diagnosis of an angular deformity to be corrected by means of a displacement osteotomy or ostectomy is by clinical examination and radiographs of the carpus.
Dorsopalmar, lateromedial and 45 degree oblique radiographs are necessary. Additional views may be indicated in certain cases.
The principal clinical sign is inability to use the limb comfortably, endangering the opposite limb to laminitis or progressive secondary deformity in an immature horse. In traumatic injuries the onset of clinical signs is acute, in degenerative injuries, the onset of clinical signs is normally progressive.
Traumatic injuries can occur in any horse in any breed and any age, progressive degeneration normally results from previous articular injury that results in progressive degenerative arthritis.