Authors of section


Mary Sarah Bergh

Executive Editor

Amy Kapatkin

General Editor

Noel Moens

Why do we illustrate a German shepherd dog?

1. General considerations

All surgical procedures in this section of AO Surgery Reference are illustrated using the anatomy of a German shepherd dog. Nevertheless, all the described principles are valid for different dog breeds and cats. Any differences between dogs and cats are clearly specified in the text. Although some principles may apply to other animal species, this is not addressed.

Users need to adjust the size and shape of the illustrated implants to match the patient individual anatomy.

Go to reference