Authors of section


Mary Sarah Bergh

Executive Editor

Amy Kapatkin

General Editor

Noel Moens

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33-C2 Complete articular metaphyseal complex fracture


Type C2 fractures are simple fracture of the condyles and complex fractures of the metaphysis.


Shown are mediolateral and craniocaudal radiographs of an 8-month-old male Saint Bernard dog with a 33-C2 fracture of the distal femur which involves the physis. Minimal displacement of the intracondylar fracture line makes this diagnosis challenging.


General considerations

33-C type fractures are complete articular fractures of the femoral condyles with several degrees of comminution of the supracondylar region. They are uncommon in small animals.

33-C2 and C3 type fractures are secondary to high impact trauma, with associated soft tissue damage.

Prompt surgical intervention is mandatory to reduce damage to the stifle joint. Fixation should be performed as soon as possible to avoid abrasion damage of the articular surface, ligaments, and menisci.

Clinical signs

Clinical signs observed in 33-C fractures are:

  • Pain
  • Crepitus during manipulation of the stifle joint
  • Palpable joint effusion
  • Lameness of the affected limb


Good quality mediolateral and craniocaudal radiographs are essential for fracture evaluation.

Computed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction are recommended.