Authors of section

Authors (on behalf of the AOSpine Knowledge Forum Tumor)

Ilya Laufer, JJ Verlaan

General Editor

Luiz Vialle

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Thoracolumbar, stable, low ESCC

Patients without mechanical instability, have SINS 0-6, and do not experience movement-exacerbated pain.
Patients with low grade ESCC (0-1) have tumors that are either confined to bone or that extend into the epidural space without causing displacement or deformation of the spinal cord.

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