The patient is placed onto a radiolucent table in a supine position.
The neck is put into a slight hyperextension by placing a pillow under the shoulders.
An additional small pillow is placed under the neck to prevent the cervical spine from moving when the anterior spine is manipulated.
When lower cervical levels needs to be seen in lateral imaging, adhesive straps are used to pull the shoulders downwards.
This author prefers to place the patient in a slight reverse-Trendelenburg position to decrease the venous pressure at the surgical site.
A C-arm should be placed to allow for intraoperative fluoroscopy.
If traction is deemed necessary, Mayfield clamp and traction is applied.
General anesthesia with endotracheal intubation is required.
4. Preoperative antibiotics
Antibiotics should be administered well prior to the incision and also at intervals during the procedure or when the blood loss exceeds 2 liters.
A cephalosporin antibiotic with good gram positive coverage is generally recommended. Local bacterial spectrum will need to be taken into account; this should be discussed with the hospital microbiologist.
5. Spinal cord monitoring
Spinal cord monitoring is optional.
Fluoroscopy is mandatory. Preoperatively, it has to be assured that the C-arm can be moved around the patient freely.