Authors of section


Carlo Bellabarba, Marcelo Gruenberg, Cumhur Oner

Executive Editor

Luiz Vialle

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C Translational injury


C-type injuries are in general failure of anterior and posterior elements leading to displacement

This category includes injuries with displacement or translation of one vertebral body relative to another in any direction.

Any associated injury (either a Type A or facet injury) should be specified separately as a subtype, after designation as a Type C injury.


X-ray/ CT

CT/radiograph images are examined to determine the fracture type.

This CT show a sagittal reconstruction of a C7/T1 type C injury.


For a complete classification (AOSpine Cervical classification) of the injury, and for the management decisions, the following aspects must be considered.

  1. Neurology
  2. Facet injury
  3. Clinical modifiers
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