Authors of section

Author

Jean Ouellet

General Editor

Luiz Vialle

Open all credits

Classification

1. Type 1

Type 1 is characterized by spondylolysis or listhesis (< 50%), and the following pelvic morphology:

  • Low pelvic incidence (< 45°).
  • Both pelvis and spine are in balance.
  • There is no lumbosacral kyphosis.
classificaiton

2. Type 2

Type 2 is characterized by listhesis (< 50%), and the following pelvic morphology:

  • Normal pelvic incidence (45-60°).
  • Both pelvis and spine are in balance.
  • There is no lumbosacral kyphosis.
classificaiton

3. Type 3

Type 3 is characterized by < 50% listhesis, and the following pelvic morphology:

  • High pelvic incidence >= 60°.
  • Both pelvis and spine are in balance.
  • There is no lumbosacral kyphosis.
classificaiton

4. Type 4

Type 4 is characterized by ≥ 50% listhesis, and the following pelvic morphology:

  • High pelvic incidence ≥ 60°.
  • Both pelvis and spine are in balance.
  • There is no lumbosacral kyphosis.
classificaiton

5. Type 5

Type 5 is characterized by ≥ 50% listhesis, and the following pelvic morphology:

  • High pelvic incidence  60°.
  • Retroverted pelvis and a balanced spine.
  • There may be lumbosacral kyphosis requiring reduction.
classificaiton

6. Type 6

Type 6 is characterized by ≥ 50% listhesis, and the following pelvic morphology:

  • High pelvic incidence ≥ 60°.
  • Retroverted pelvis and an unbalanced spine.
  • There is lumbosacral kyphosis requiring reduction.
classificaiton