Han Jo Kim, Marinus de Kleuver, Keith Luk
Kenneth Cheung, Larry Lenke
Type 2 curves have structural main thoracic and proximal thoracic curve.
A minor curve is defined as structural if at least one of the two below criteria are met:
The left X-rays show a 16 year old male with Lenke 2A curve consisting of a:
The PT curve is here structural and the TL/L curve non-structural.
The lumbar modifier is determined by drawing a vertical line from the center of the sacrum.
Lumbar modifier A is designated if this line lies between the pedicles at the apical level of the lumbar curve.
Lumbar modifier B is designated if this line touches the apical vertebral pedicle.
Lumbar modifier C is designated if this line does not touch any part of the vertebral body or pedicle at the apex.
The sagittal modifiers are determined from the lateral radiograph from T5-T12.
A measurement less than 10° is designated as "-".
Measurements between 10°-40° is designated as "N".
A measurement larger than 40° is designated as "+".