Authors of section


Andrew Howard, James Hunter, Theddy Slongo

Executive Editor

Fergal Monsell

General Editor

Chris Colton

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31-M/3.1 II   Complete basicervical, simple

The morphology of this fracture is a simple complete basicervical fracture. Depending on the initial displacement, the thick periosteum can be partially or fully ruptured. The risk of avascular necrosis (AVN) is proportional to energy and displacement.

Depending on the level, this fracture can be either directly at the attachment of the capsule or immediately outside the capsule. This determines the presence, or absence, of intracapsular hemarthrosis.

Note: Closed management can cause entrapment or rupture of the retinacula and their vessels. This may contribute to AVN.

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