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Matthias Hansen, Rodrigo Pesántez

Executive Editors

Joseph Schatzker, Ernst Raaymakers, Rick Buckley

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Extraarticular fracture, avulsion of tibial spine or capsular attachments

Avulsion of the tibial spine

These are fractures of the proximal fibula, produced by an avulsion (traction) mechanism. The pathology is similar to a rupture of the collateral ligament.

Avulsion of fibular head can indicate several ligamental injuries (besides LCL, the insertion of biceps femoris and the fibula-popliteal lig.may also be avulsed).

Fibular head
Fibular head
Tibial spine (AO/OTA 41A1.3)

Avulsion of capsular attachment

Avulsions of the capsular attachments are classified as AO/OTA 41A1.1 fractures.

extraarticular fracture avulsion of tibial tubercle
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