Authors of section


Ernst Raaymakers, Inger Schipper, Rogier Simmermacher, Chris van der Werken

Executive Editors

Joseph Schatzker, Peter Trafton

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Proximal femoral fractures

1. Classic references

Baumgärtner MR, Curtin SL, Lindskog DM, et al. The value of the tip-apex distance in predicting failure of fixation of peritrochanteric fractures of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1995 Jul;77(7):1058–1064.

Pauwels F. [Der Schenkelhalsbruch, ein mechanisches Problem: Grundlagen des Heilungsvorganges, Prognose und kausale Therapie.] Z Orthop Chir . 1935;6:(Suppl 3). German.

Pipkin G. Treatment of grade IV fracture dislocation of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1957 Oct;39-a(5):1027–1042.

Swiontkowski MF. Intracapsular fractures of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1994 Jan;76(1):129–138.

Zielinski SM, Meeuwis MA, Heetveld MJ, et al. Adherence to a femoral neck fracture treatment guideline. Int Orthop . 2013 Jul;37(7):1327–1334.

2. Review references

Florschutz AV, Langford JR, Haidukewych GJ, et al. Femoral neck fractures: current management. J Orthop Trauma. 2015 Mar;29(3):121–129.

Haidukewych GJ. Intertrochanteric fractures: ten tips to improve results. Instr Course Lect. 2010;59:503–509.

Sabhanwal S, Wilson H. Orthogeriatrics in the management of frail older patients with a fragility fracture. Osteoporos Int. 2015 Oct;26(10):2387–2399.

Sheehan SE, Shyu JY, Weaver MJ, et al. Proximal Femoral Fractures: What the Orthopedic Surgeon Wants to Know. Radiographics. 2015 Sep-Oct;35(5):1563–1584.

3. Further references

Adam P. Treatment of recent trochanteric fractures in adults. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2014 Feb;100(1 Suppl):S75–83.

Bonnaire F, Strasberger C, Kieb M, et al. [Osteoporotic fractures of the proximal femur, What´s new?]. Chirurg . 2012 Oct;83(10):882–891.

Eastell R, Lambert H. Strategies for skeletal health in the elderly. Proc Nutr Soc. 2002 May;61(2):173–180.

Egol KA, Strauss EJ. Perioperative considerations in geriatric patients with hip fracture: what is the evidence? J Orthop Trauma. 2009 Jul;23(6):386–394.

Gupta RK, Gupta V, Gupta N. Outcome of osteoporotic trochanteric fractures treated with cement-augmented dynamic hip screws. Indian J Orthop . 2012 Nov;46(6):640–645.

Handoll HH, Parker MJ. Conservative versus operative treatment for hip fractures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jul 16;(3):CD000337.

Haubro M, Stougaard C, Torfing T, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of CT- and MRI-scanning in evaluation of occult fracture of the proximal femur. Injury. 2015 Aug;46(8):1557–1561.

Lawrence TM, Wenn R, Boulton CT, et al. Age-specific incidence of first and second fractures of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010 Feb;92(2):258–261.

Marecek GS, Scolaro JA, Routt ML, Jr. Femoral head fractures. JBJS Rev. 2015 Nov 3;3(11).

Massè A, Aprato A, Alluto C, et al. Surgical hip dislocation is a reliable approach for treatment of femoral head fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Dec;473(12):3744–3751.

Mittal R, Banerjee S. Proximal femoral fractures: principles of management and review of the literature. J Clin Orthop Trauma. 2012 Jun;3(1):15–23.

Moppett IK, Parker M, Griffiths R, et al. Nottingham Hip Fracture Score: longitudinal and multi- assessment. Br J Anaesth . 2012 Oct;109(4):546–550.

Mostafa MF, El- Adl W, El-Sayed MA. Operative treatment of displaced Pipkin type I and II femoral head fractures. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2014 May;134(5):637–644.

NICE Guidelines. Available at: Accessed 2015.

Parker MJ, Handoll HH. Gamma and other cephalocondylic intramedullary nails versus extramedullary implants for extracapsular hip fractures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Sep 08(9):Cd000093.

Pellicci PM, Potter HG, Foo LF, et al. MRI shows biologic restoration of posterior soft tissue repairs after THA. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009 April;467(4):940–945.

Philpott M, Ashwood N, Ockendon M, et al. Fractures of the femoral head. Trauma. 2014;16(1):9–17.

Sathiyakumar V, Greenberg SE, Molina CS, et al. Hip fractures are risky business: an analysis of the NSQIP data. Injury. 2015 Apr;46(4):703–708.

Tawari AA, Kempegowda H, Suk M, et al. What makes an intertrochanteric fracture unstable in 2015? Does the lateral wall play a role in the decision matrix? J Orthop Trauma. 2015 Apr;29 Suppl 4:S4–9.

Wirtz C, Abbassi F, Evangelopoulos DS, et al. High failure rate of trochanteric fracture osteosynthesis with proximal femoral locking compression plate. Injury. 2013 Jun;44(6):751–756.

Yang B, Lin X, Yin XM, et al. Bipolar versus unipolar hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures in the elder patient: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol . 2015 Apr;25(3):425–433.

Zhao Y, Fu D, Chen K, et al. Outcome of hemiarthroplasty and total hip replacement for active elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures: a meta-analysis of 8 randomized clinical trials. PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e98071.