Authors of section


Theerachai Apivatthakakul, Jong-Keon Oh

Executive Editor

Michael Baumgaertner

Open all credits

References on proximal femoral fracture management

1. Classic references

2. Review references

Florschutz AV, Langford JR, Haidukewych GJ, et al. Femoral neck fractures: current management. J Orthop Trauma. 2015 Mar;29(3):121–129.

Haidukewych GJ. Intertrochanteric fractures: ten tips to improve results. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009 Mar;91(3):712–719.

3. Further references

Barenius B, Inngul C, Alagic Z, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cemented versus cementless arthroplasty in patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture: a four-year follow-up. Bone Joint J. 2018 Aug;100-B(8):1087–1093.

Bovbjerg P, Froberg L, Schmal H. Short versus long intramedullary nails for treatment of intertrochanteric femur fractures (AO 31-A1 and AO 31-A2): a systematic review. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 2019 Dec;29(8):1823–1831.

Cho JW, Kent WT, Yoon YC, et al. Fracture morphology of AO/OTA 31-A trochanteric fractures: A 3D CT study with an emphasis on coronal fragments. Injury. 2017 Feb;48(2):277–284.

Davidson A, Silver N, Cohen D, et al. Justifying CT prior to MRI in cases of suspected occult hip fracture. A proposed diagnostic protocol. Injury. 2020 Sep 30;S0020-1383(20)30798-1.

Dolatowski FC, Frihagen F, Bartels S, et al. Screw fixation versus hemiarthroplasty for nondisplaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2019 Jan 16;101(2):136–144.

Ekhtiari S, Gormley J, Axelrod DE, et al. Total Hip Arthroplasty Versus Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Femoral Neck Fracture: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2020 Sep 16;102(18):1638–1645.

Haubro M, Stougaard C, Torfing T, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of CT- and MRI-scanning in evaluation of occult fracture of the proximal femur. Injury. 2015 Aug;46(8):1557–1561.

Hsu C-E, Shih C-M, Wang C-C, et al. Lateral femoral wall thickness. A reliable predictor of post-operative lateral wall fracture in intertrochanteric fractures. Bone Joint J. 2013 Aug;95-B(8):1134–1138.

Kammerlander C, Pfeufer D, Lisitano LA, et al. Inability of Older Adult Patients with Hip Fracture to Maintain Postoperative Weight-Bearing Restrictions. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2018 Jun 6;100(11):936–941.

Kim Y, Dheep K, Lee J, et al. Hook leverage technique for reduction of intertrochanteric fracture. Injury. 2014 Jun;45(6):1006–1010.

Kumar P, Rajnish RK, Sharma S, et al. Proximal femoral nailing is superior to hemiarthroplasty in AO/OTA A2 and A3 intertrochanteric femur fractures in the elderly: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Int Orthop. 2020 Apr;44(4):623–633.

Lim EJ, Kim JW, Vemulapalli KC, et al. Surgical outcomes of minimally invasive cerclage clamping technique using a pointed reduction clamp for reduction of nonisthmal femoral shaft fractures. Injury. 2021 Jul;52(7):1897–1902.

Massè A, Aprato A, Alluto C, et al. Surgical hip dislocation is a reliable approach for treatment of femoral head fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Dec;473(12):3744–3751.

Overmann AL, Richards JT, O’Hara NN, et al. Outcomes of elderly patients with nondisplaced or minimally displaced femoral neck fractures treated with internal fixation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Injury. 2019 Dec;50(12):2158–2166.

Park J, Yang KH. Correction of malalignment in proximal femoral nailing--Reduction technique of displaced proximal fragment. Injury. 2010 Jun;41:634–638.

Pfeufer D, Zeller A, Mehaffey S, et al. Weight-bearing restrictions reduce postoperative mobility in elderly hip fracture patients. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2019 Sep;139(9):1253–1259.

Richards JT, Overmann AL, OʼHara NN, et al. Internal fixation versus arthroplasty for the treatment of nondisplaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Orthop Trauma. 2020 Jan;34(1):42–48.

Rikli D, Goldhahn S, Blauth M, et al. Optimizing intraoperative imaging during proximal femoral fracture fixation - a performance improvement program for surgeons. Injury. 2018 Feb;49(2):339–344.

Tang X, Wang D, Liu Y, et al. The comparison between total hip arthroplasty and hemiarthroplasty in patients with femoral neck fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis based on 25 randomized controlled trials. J Orthop Surg Res. 2020 Dec 10;15(1):596.

Tanzer M, Graves SE, Peng A, et al. Is Cemented or Cementless Femoral Stem Fixation More Durable in Patients Older Than 75 Years of Age? A Comparison of the Best-performing Stems. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2018 Jul;476(7):1428–1437. Erratum in: Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2020 May;478(5):1131.

Veldman HD, Heyligers IC, Grimm B, et al. Cemented versus cementless hemiarthroplasty for a displaced fracture of the femoral neck: a systematic review and meta-analysis of current generation hip stems. Bone Joint J. 2017 Apr;99-B(4):421–431.

Wirtz C, Abbassi F, Evangelopoulos DS, et al. High failure rate of trochanteric fracture osteosynthesis with proximal femoral locking compression plate. Injury. 2013 Jun;44(6):751–756.

Go to diagnosis