Authors of section


Ernst Raaymakers, Inger Schipper, Rogier Simmermacher, Chris van der Werken

Executive Editors

Joseph Schatzker, Peter Trafton

Open all credits

Proximal femoral fractures

1. Classic references

Baumgärtner MR, Curtin SL, Lindskog DM, et al. The value of the tip-apex distance in predicting failure of fixation of peritrochanteric fractures of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1995 Jul;77(7):1058–1064.

Pauwels F. [Der Schenkelhalsbruch, ein mechanisches Problem: Grundlagen des Heilungsvorganges, Prognose und kausale Therapie.] Z Orthop Chir . 1935;6:(Suppl 3). German.

Pipkin G. Treatment of grade IV fracture dislocation of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1957 Oct;39-a(5):1027–1042.

Swiontkowski MF. Intracapsular fractures of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1994 Jan;76(1):129–138.

Zielinski SM, Meeuwis MA, Heetveld MJ, et al. Adherence to a femoral neck fracture treatment guideline. Int Orthop . 2013 Jul;37(7):1327–1334.

2. Review references

Florschutz AV, Langford JR, Haidukewych GJ, et al. Femoral neck fractures: current management. J Orthop Trauma. 2015 Mar;29(3):121–129.

Haidukewych GJ. Intertrochanteric fractures: ten tips to improve results. Instr Course Lect. 2010;59:503–509.

Sabhanwal S, Wilson H. Orthogeriatrics in the management of frail older patients with a fragility fracture. Osteoporos Int. 2015 Oct;26(10):2387–2399.

Sheehan SE, Shyu JY, Weaver MJ, et al. Proximal Femoral Fractures: What the Orthopedic Surgeon Wants to Know. Radiographics. 2015 Sep-Oct;35(5):1563–1584.

3. Further references

Adam P. Treatment of recent trochanteric fractures in adults. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2014 Feb;100(1 Suppl):S75–83.

Bonnaire F, Strasberger C, Kieb M, et al. [Osteoporotic fractures of the proximal femur, What´s new?]. Chirurg . 2012 Oct;83(10):882–891.

Eastell R, Lambert H. Strategies for skeletal health in the elderly. Proc Nutr Soc. 2002 May;61(2):173–180.

Egol KA, Strauss EJ. Perioperative considerations in geriatric patients with hip fracture: what is the evidence? J Orthop Trauma. 2009 Jul;23(6):386–394.

Gupta RK, Gupta V, Gupta N. Outcome of osteoporotic trochanteric fractures treated with cement-augmented dynamic hip screws. Indian J Orthop . 2012 Nov;46(6):640–645.

Handoll HH, Parker MJ. Conservative versus operative treatment for hip fractures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jul 16;(3):CD000337.

Haubro M, Stougaard C, Torfing T, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of CT- and MRI-scanning in evaluation of occult fracture of the proximal femur. Injury. 2015 Aug;46(8):1557–1561.

Lawrence TM, Wenn R, Boulton CT, et al. Age-specific incidence of first and second fractures of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010 Feb;92(2):258–261.

Marecek GS, Scolaro JA, Routt ML, Jr. Femoral head fractures. JBJS Rev. 2015 Nov 3;3(11).

Massè A, Aprato A, Alluto C, et al. Surgical hip dislocation is a reliable approach for treatment of femoral head fractures. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Dec;473(12):3744–3751.

Mittal R, Banerjee S. Proximal femoral fractures: principles of management and review of the literature. J Clin Orthop Trauma. 2012 Jun;3(1):15–23.

Moppett IK, Parker M, Griffiths R, et al. Nottingham Hip Fracture Score: longitudinal and multi- assessment. Br J Anaesth . 2012 Oct;109(4):546–550.

Mostafa MF, El- Adl W, El-Sayed MA. Operative treatment of displaced Pipkin type I and II femoral head fractures. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2014 May;134(5):637–644.

NICE Guidelines. Available at: Accessed 2015.

Parker MJ, Handoll HH. Gamma and other cephalocondylic intramedullary nails versus extramedullary implants for extracapsular hip fractures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Sep 08(9):Cd000093.

Pellicci PM, Potter HG, Foo LF, et al. MRI shows biologic restoration of posterior soft tissue repairs after THA. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009 April;467(4):940–945.

Philpott M, Ashwood N, Ockendon M, et al. Fractures of the femoral head. Trauma. 2014;16(1):9–17.

Sathiyakumar V, Greenberg SE, Molina CS, et al. Hip fractures are risky business: an analysis of the NSQIP data. Injury. 2015 Apr;46(4):703–708.

Tawari AA, Kempegowda H, Suk M, et al. What makes an intertrochanteric fracture unstable in 2015? Does the lateral wall play a role in the decision matrix? J Orthop Trauma. 2015 Apr;29 Suppl 4:S4–9.

Wirtz C, Abbassi F, Evangelopoulos DS, et al. High failure rate of trochanteric fracture osteosynthesis with proximal femoral locking compression plate. Injury. 2013 Jun;44(6):751–756.

Yang B, Lin X, Yin XM, et al. Bipolar versus unipolar hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures in the elder patient: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol . 2015 Apr;25(3):425–433.

Zhao Y, Fu D, Chen K, et al. Outcome of hemiarthroplasty and total hip replacement for active elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures: a meta-analysis of 8 randomized clinical trials. PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e98071.

Go to diagnosis