These injuries are wedge fractures of the shaft and proximal metaphysis of metatarsals 1–4.
They are classified as follows:
1–4 indicates which metatarsal is injured.
The following clinical presentation is typical:
Conventional radiographs of the foot (AP and lateral oblique views) are sufficient for diagnosis and treatment.
CT scans are invaluable for clarification of the fracture pattern and assessment of additional fractures of the midfoot.
Fractures may be created with multiple mechanisms:
They may involve either high- or low-energy mechanisms.
High-energy mechanism injuries are often associated with midfoot instability (Lisfranc instability).
Compartment syndrome and Lisfranc injuries should always be suspected.