Authors of section


Peter V Giannoudis, Hans Christoph Pape, Michael Schütz

Executive Editors

Chris Colton, Rick Buckley

Open all credits

Simple, spiral, middle 1/3 fractures

Simple spiral fractures in the middle zone of the femoral shaft are classified as 32A1(b) fractures.

Simple spiral fractures often result from medium to moderate injury to the femur. Spiral fractures of the femoral shaft occur due to axial loading with torsion and may be caused by falls from a height.

(AO/OTA 32A1(b))
(AO/OTA 32A1(b))
(AO/OTA 32A1b)