Authors of section


Richard Buckley, Andrew Sands


Martin Hessmann, Sean Nork, Christoph Sommer, Bruce Twaddle

Executive Editors

Joseph Schatzker, Peter Trafton, Michael Baumgaertner

Open all credits

Recommended literature - distal tibia

1. Review articles

Wang D, Xiang JP, Chen XH, et al. A Meta-Analysis for Postoperative Complications in Tibial Plafond Fracture: Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Versus Limited Internal Fixation Combined With External Fixator. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2015 Jul-Aug;54(4):646-651.

Liporace FA, Mehta S, Rhorer AS, et al. Staged treatment and associated complications of pilon fractures. Instr Course Lect. 2012;61:53-70.

Sirkin MS. Plating of tibial pilon fractures. A review paper. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2007 Dec;36(12 Suppl 2):13-17.

White TO, Guy P, Cooke CJ, et al. The results of early primary open reduction and internal fixation for treatment of OTA 43.C-type tibial pilon fractures: a cohort study. J Orthop Trauma. 2010 Dec; 24(12): 757-763.

Ketz J, Sanders R. Staged posterior tibial plating for the treatment of Orthopaedic Trauma Association 43C2 and 43C3 tibial pilon fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 2012 Jun;26(6):341-347.

2. Classic articles

Cole PA, Mehrle RK, Bhandari M, et al. The pilon map: fracture lines and comminution zones in OTA/AO type 43C3 pilon fractures. J Orthop Trauma. 2013 Jul;27(7):e152-156.

Tang X, Liu L, Tu CQ, et al. Comparison of Early and Delayed Open Reduction and Internal Fixation for Treating Closed Tibial Pilon Fractures. Foot Ankle Int. 2014 Jul;35(7):657-664.

Marcus MS, Yoon RS, Langford J, et al. Is there a role for intramedullary nails in the treatment of simple pilon fractures? Rationale and preliminary results. Injury. 2013 Aug;44(8):1107-1111.

Last updated 12/12/2016

Go to diagnosis