Authors of section


Richard Buckley, Andrew Sands


Martin Hessmann, Sean Nork, Christoph Sommer, Bruce Twaddle

Executive Editors

Joseph Schatzker, Peter Trafton, Michael Baumgaertner

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Extraarticular, simple fractures

These distal tibial fractures can be further described as:

  • Spiral (classified by AO/OTA as 43A1.1)
  • Oblique (classified by AO/OTA as 43A1.2)
  • Transverse (classified by AO/OTA as 43A1.3)
Clinical assessment must include the condition of the soft tissues as well as the sensory and motor function of the foot structures. Special attention is given to any signs of a compartment syndrome.  Standard AP and lateral x-rays are taken. In case of doubt, CT-scans may be helpful to detect or exclude involvement of the articular surface.  For all distal tibia fractures, the fibula must be classified as intact, or fractured into two or multiple fragments.
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