Authors of section


Richard Buckley, Andrew Sands


Martin Hessmann, Sean Nork, Christoph Sommer, Bruce Twaddle

Executive Editors

Joseph Schatzker, Peter Trafton, Michael Baumgaertner

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Complete simple articular, simple metaphyseal fracture

These fractures are simple and complete articular fractures, comprising of two large split articular fragments. They can be further described as:

  • Simple without impaction (classified by AO/OTA as 43C1.1)
  • With epiphyseal depression, typically 10-20% of the plafond (classified by AO/OTA as 43C1.2)
  • Extending into the diaphysis (classified by AO/OTA as 43C1.3)

Standard AP and lateral x-rays are taken. More detailed information is provided by CT-scans with 2-D and 3-D reconstructions.

Clinical assessment must include the condition of the soft tissues as well as the sensory and motor function of the foot structures. Special attention is given to any signs of a compartment syndrome.  Standard AP and lateral x-rays are taken. In case of doubt, CT-scans may be helpful to detect or exclude involvement of the articular surface.  For all distal tibia fractures, the fibula must be classified as intact, or fractured into two or multiple fragments.
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