Authors of section


S Fusetti, B Hammer, R Kellman, C Matula, EB Strong, A Di Ieva

General Editor

Daniel Buchbinder

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Traumatic brain injury/Vascular injury

1. Traumatic brain injuries

The most typical traumatic brain injury associated with head trauma are:

  • Brain contusion (BC)
  • Brain laceration
  • Brain swelling
  • Intraparenchymal hematoma (ICH)
  • Subarachnoid hematoma (SAH)
  • Intraventricular hematoma
  • Subdural hematoma (SDH)
  • Epidural hematoma (EDH)
  • Diffuse axonal injury

A late complication can be brain infection/abscess/ hydrocephalus/posttraumatic seizures.

Traumatic brain injuries

2. Vascular injuries

The most typical vascular injuries associated to head trauma are:

  • Traumatic aneurysms
  • Posttraumatic (arteriovenous) AV fistulas (very seldom arterial, in general of venous sinuses such as superior sagittal sinus or lateral sinuses)
  • Carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF)

For such conditions computer tomography in combination with computer tomographic angiography (CTA) or cerebral angiograms are required.

Vascular injuries
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