Authors of section


S Fusetti, B Hammer, R Kellman, C Matula, EB Strong, A Di Ieva

General Editor

Daniel Buchbinder

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CNS considerations

1. CNS considerations

All injuries to the frontal sinus, skull base, and cranial vault may carry the risk of significant injuries to the central nervous system. The first clinical assessment is a thorough neurological exam and determination of the patient's Glasgow coma scale (GCS). Imaging is essential in determining the extent of intracranial injuries. Emergency treatment is directed at the decompression of the brain and management of vascular injuries to avoid irreversible neurological sequelae.