Authors of section


Carl-Peter Cornelius, Nils Gellrich, Søren Hillerup, Kenji Kusumoto, Warren Schubert

Executive Editors

Edward Ellis III, Kazuo Shimozato

General Editor

Daniel Buchbinder

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Recommended literature - midface

1. Journal articles

Chen CT, Huang F, Tsay PK, et al (2007) Endoscopically assisted transconjunctival decompression of traumatic optic neuropathy. J Craniofac Surg. 8(1):19-26; discussion 27-8.

Chen CH, Wang TY, Tsay PK, et al (2008) A 162-case review of palatal fracture: management strategy from a 10-year experience. Plast Reconstr Surg. 121(6):2065-73.

Cornelius CP, Altenmüller E, Ehrenfeld M (1996) The use of flash visual evoked potentials in the early diagnosis of suspected optic nerve lesions due to craniofacial trauma. J Craniomaxillofac Surg; 24(1):1-11.

Dolan R, Smith DK (2000) Superior cantholysis for zygomatic fracture repair. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2(3):181-186.

Ellis E III , Reddy L (2004) Status of the internal orbit after reduction of zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 62(3):275-283

Evans BT, Webb AA (2007) Post-traumatic orbital reconstruction: anatomical landmarks and the concept of the deep orbit. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 45:183-189

Gellrich NC (1999) [Controversies and current status of therapy of optic nerve damage in craniofacial traumatology and surgery.] Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir; 3(4):176-94. Review. German.

Gellrich NC, Gellrich MM, Zerfowski M, et al (1997) [Clinical and experimental study of traumatic optic nerve damage.] Ophthalmologe; 94(11):807-14. German.

Gellrich NC, Kankam J, Maier W, et al (2006) [Single and temporally displaced second nerve lesions in an animal model and their clinical significance.] HNO; 54(10):761-7. German.

Gellrich NC, Schimming R, Zerfowski M (2002) Quantification of histological changes after calibrated crush of the intraorbital optic nerve in rats. Br J Ophthalmol; 86(2):233-7.

Gellrich NC, Schramm A, Rustemeyer J, et al (2002) Quantification of the neurodegenerative impact on the visual system following sudden retrobulbar expanding lesions - an experimental model. J Craniomaxillofac Surg; 30(4):230-6.

Gellrich NC, Zerfowski M, Eufinger H, et al (1998) [Interdisciplinary diagnosis and therapy of traumatic optic nerve damage.] Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir; 2 Suppl 1:S107-12. German.

Gross MD, Arbel G, Hershkovitz I (2001) Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the facial skeleton on simulated occlusal loading. J Oral Rehabil. 28(7):684-94.

Gruss JS (1985) Naso-ethmoid-orbital fractures: classification and role of primary bonegrafting Plast Reconstr Surg 75(3):303-317

Gruss J, Bubak PJ, Egbert M (1992) Craniofacial fractures: an algorithm to optimize results. Clin Plast Surg 19:195-206

Gruss JS, Mackinnon SE (1986) Complex maxillary fractures: role of buttress reconstruction and immediate bone grafts. Plast Reconstr Surg 78(1):9-22

Gruss JS, Van Wyck L, Phillips JH et al (1990) The importance of the zygomatic arch in complex midfacial fracture repair and correction of post-traumatic orbito-zygomatic deformities. Plast Reconstr Surg 85(6):878-890

Jaquiéry C, Aeppli P, Cornelius P, et al (2007) Reconstruction of orbital wall defects: critical review of 72 patients. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 36(3):193–199

Knize DM (1995) A study of the supraorbital nerve. Plast Reconstr Surg 96(3):564-569

Knize DM (2002), The superficial lateral canthal tendon: anatomic study and clinical application to lateral canthopexy. Plast Reconstr Surg 109(3):1149-1157. Discussion 1158-1163

Knize DM (2007) An anatomical comparison of transpalpebral, endoscopic, and coronal approaches to demonstrate exposure and extent of brow depressor muscle resection. Plast Reconstr Surg 119(4):1374-1377. Author reply 1377-1379

Koornneef L (1977), New insights in the human orbital connective tissue: results of a new anatomic approach. Arch Ophthalmol 95:1269

Koornneef L (1979), Orbital septa: anatomy and function. Ophthalmology 86:876

Klöcker N, Zerfowski M, Gellrich NC, et al (2001) Morphological and functional analysis of an incomplete CNS fiber tract lesion: graded crush of the rat optic nerve. J Neurosci Methods; 110(1-2):147-53.

Lohnstein PU, Schipper J, Berlis A, et al (2007) [Posttraumatic amaurosis after complex frontobasal fracture. Differential diagnosis and therapy.] HNO; 55(11):885-90. German.

Manson PN, Crawley WA, Yaremchuk MJ et al (1985) Midface fractures: advantages of immediate extended open reduction and bone grafting. Plast Reconstr Surg 76(1):1-10

Manson PN, Hoopes JE, Su CT (1980) Structurel pillars of the facial skeleton: An approach to management of Le Fort fractures. Plast Reconstr Surg 66(1):54-62

Markowitz BL, Manson PN, Sargent L, et al (1991) Management of the medial canthal tendon in nasoethmoid orbital fractures: the importance of the central fragment in classification and treatment. Plast Reconstr Surg. 87(5):843-53.

Metzger MC, Schön R, Schulze D, et al (2006) Individual preformed titanium meshes for orbital fractures. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod: 102(4):442-447

Muzaffar AR, Mendelson BC, Adams WP Jr (2002) Surgical anatomy of the ligamentous attachments of the lower lid and lateral canthus. Plast Reconstr Surg 110(3):873-884. Discussion 897-911

Mendelson BC, Muzaffar AR, Adams WP Jr (2002), Surgical anatomy of the midcheek and malar mounds. Plast Reconstr Surg 2002: 110(3): 885-896. Discussion 897-911

Mendelson BC (2002) Surgery of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system: principles of release, vectors, and fixation. Plast Reconstr Surg: 109(2):824-825

Moss CJ, Mendelson BC, Taylor GI (2000) Surgical anatomy of the ligamentous attachments in the temple and periorbital regions. Plast Reconstr Surg 105(4):1475-1490. Discussion 1491-1478

Ogata H, Kaneko T, Nakajima T, Kubota J (2004) Strangulated trapdoor type orbital blow-out fractures in children. Fracture pattern and clinical outcome. Eur J Plast Surg 27:12-19.

Odom JV, Bach M, Barber C, et al (2004) Visual evoked potentials standard (2004). Doc Ophthalmol. 108(2):115-23

Philipps JH, Gruss JS, Wells MD et al (1991) Periosteal suspension of the lower eyelid and cheek following subciliary exposure of facial fractures. Plast Reconstr Surg 88(1):145 -148

Posnick JC (1994) Management of facial fractures in children and adolescents. Ann Plast Surg 33(4):442-57

Posnick JC (1992) The role of plate and screw fixation in the management of pediatric facial fractures. In Gruss JS, Manson PM, Yaremchuk MJ (eds): Rigid Fixation of the Craniomaxillofacial Skeleton, Stoneham, Mass, Butterworth 396-419

Posnick J, Goldstein J, Clokie C (1992) Advantages of the postauricular coronal incision. Ann Plast Surg 29(2):114 - 116

Rohner D, Tay A, Sew Meng C, et al (2002) The sphenozygomatic suture as a key site for osteosynthesis of the orbitozygomatic complex in panfacial fratures: a biomechanical study in human cadavers based on clinical practice. Plast Reconstr Surg 110(6):1463 – 1471: discussion 1472 - 1475

Schipper J, Ridder GJ, Arapakis I, et al (2004) [Neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring to preserve cranial nerve function in base of skull surgery.] HNO; 52(10):897-907. German.

Stanley RB, Sires BS, Funk GF et al (1998) Management of displaced lateral orbital wall fractures associated with visual and ocular motility disturbances. Plast Reconstr Surg 102(4):972-979

Tessier P (1982) Inferior orbitotomy. A new approach to the orbital floor. Clin Plast Surg 9(4): 569-575

Tessier P, Kawamoto H, Posnick J, et al (2005) Taking calvarial grafts, either split in situ or splitting of the parietal bone flap ex vivo--tools and techniques: V. A 9650-case experience in craniofacial and maxillofacial surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 116(5 Suppl):54S-71S; discussion 92S-94S.

Uemura T, Jinnai T, Yokoyama T et al (2001) C-shape extended transconjunctival approach for the exposure and osteotomy of traumatic orbitozygomaticomaxillary deformities. J Craniofac Surg 12(6):603-607

Zide BM, McCarthy JG (1983) The medial canthus revisited - an anatomical basis for canthopexy. Ann Plast Surg 11(1):1-9

2. Books

Bron AJ, Tripathi RC, Tripathi BJ (1997) Wolff’s anatomy of the eye and orbit, 8th ed., Chapman and Hall.

Doxanas M (1984) Clinical orbital anatomy. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.

Dutton J, Waldrop T (1994) Atlas of clinical and surgical orbital anatomy. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Ellis E III, Zide MF (2006) Surgical approaches to the facial skeleton. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Hammer B (1995) Orbital Fractures. Diagnosis, Operative Treatment, Secondary. Corrections. Seattle Toronto Bern Göttingen: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.

Harnsberger HR, Osborn AG, Macdonald AJ, et al (2007) Diagnostic and surgical imaging anatomy. Brain, head and neck, spine. Amirsys Inc.

Janfaza P, Nadol JB, Galla RJ, et al (2001) Surgical anatomy of the head and neck. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Keen WW (1909) Surgery: Its principles and practice. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.

Knize DM (2001) The forhead and temporal fossa, Anatomy and technique. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Larrabee WF Jr, Makielski KH (1993) Surgical anatomy of the face. New York: Raven Press.

Rootman J, Stewart B, Goldberg R (1995) Orbital surgery: a conceptual approach. Philadelphia, New York: Lippincott Raven.

Tiedemann K (1993) Anatomy of the head and neck - a multiplanar atlas for radiologistsand surgeons. Weinheim, Basel, New York: VCH Verlagsgesellschaft.

Whitnall SE (1932) Anatomy of the human orbit. London, Oxford: University Press

Zide BM, Jelks G (1985) Surgical anatomy of the orbit. New York: Raven Press

Zide B (2006) Surgical anatomy around the orbit. The system of zones. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

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