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Authors of section


Edward Ellis III, Warren Schubert

Executive Editors

Zein Gossous, Uzair Luqman, Rafael Cypriano, Peter Aquilina, Irfan Shah, Florian M Thieringer

General Editor

Daniel Buchbinder

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Observation – Patients with primary and early mixed dentition

In a pediatric case, more significant fractures will often heal without surgical intervention. The periosteum is much stronger, the bones heal much more rapidly, and minor occlusal disturbances may adjust with growth.

Surgical interventions with plates and screws are much more dangerous due to the risk of damaging the unerupted teeth.

The patient is assessed clinically at regular intervals by clinically monitoring the occlusion and radiographically to assure that fracture healing is uneventful.

It is essential to ensure that the patient achieves their normal range of motion.

Symphysis and parasymphysis simple