Authors of section


Ricardo Cienfuegos, Carl-Peter Cornelius, Edward Ellis III, George Kushner

Executive Editors

Marcelo Figari, Gregorio Sánchez Aniceto

General Editor

Daniel Buchbinder

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Body, complex

Comminuted fracture

Comminuted fractures involve multiple fracture lines in the mandibular body resulting in multiple fragments of bone. The bone is often shattered in the area of fracture, with fracture lines running in three dimensions.

Many clinicians consider comminuted fractures synonymous with multifragmentary fractures.

The alveolar process and teeth are commonly involved in comminuted fractures. Often, fragments containing teeth have to be removed as they have no mucosal connection.

Comminution often results in nonviable bone fragments and thus in a bone defect of variable size.

Complex fracture of the mandibular body


Routine diagnosis of this type of fracture should include x-rays taken in two planes at 90° to each other; the minimum requirement is a PA view and a panoramic view.

CT or digital volume tomography (DVT) imaging is extremely useful in cases of comminuted fractures.

Complex fracture of the mandibular body

The advantage of CT scanning is that the small fragments and bone shattering can be identified as can the displacement of the major fragments. This example depicts a combination of large and small separated bone pieces within the comminution area.

Complex fracture of the mandibular body

PA view of the same case.

Complex fracture of the mandibular body

Basal triangle (wedge) fracture

Mandibular body fractures with basal triangle represent a special severity grade. This type of fracture can be classified at the lower end of the scale of complex fractures.

Panoramic x-ray displaying bilateral mandibular fracture in the midbody on the left and the angle on the left. Both fractures show a fragmentation with a basal triangle (wedge).

Complex fracture of the mandibular body

3-D reconstruction of a case with a basal triangle fracture

Complex fracture of the mandibular body

in the posterior body region.

Complex fracture of the mandibular body

Representative slice of a sagittal CT scan series of the same patient.

Complex fracture of the mandibular body

Mechanism of the injury

This more severe type of mandibular body fractures most often results from heavy impact during physical altercation or from traffic accidents.

Basal triangle fractures
In the particular case of basal triangle fractures, the vector of impact has a diagonal superior–inferior direction causing compressive forces at the lower mandibular border leading to a blowout of a bony triangle. The base of the bony triangle lies along the lower mandibular border and its apex reaches the alveolar process in this particular fracture mechanism.

Complex fracture of the mandibular body