Chronically infected fractures (also infected simple fractures are treated like comminuted fractures)
Defect fractures (where the inferior border segment with or without alveolar bone is missing)
Edentulous atrophic mandibles
CT scanning's advantage is that small fragments, bone-shattering, and displacement of the major fragments can be identified. This example shows a combination of small and large bone fragments within the comminution area.
This 3D-CT shows the PA view of the same case.
Comminuted fractures involve multiple fracture lines in the mandibular body, resulting in multiple bone fragments with a complex three-dimensional orientation.
The alveolar process and teeth are commonly involved in comminuted fractures. Fragments containing teeth might need to be removed if they have no soft tissue connection.
Comminution often results in nonviable bone fragments and, consequently, bone defects.
This case shows a mandibular body basal triangle fracture, which represents a lower grade of complexity.
This image shows a bilateral mandibular fracture in the midbody on the left and the angle on the right. Both fractures show fragmentation with a basal triangle (wedge).
Mechanism of the injury
Complex mandibular body fractures often result from a heavy impact during interpersonal violence or traffic accidents.