Authors of section


J Andreasen, CP Cornelius, N Gellrich, S Hillerup, K Kusumoto, W Schubert

Executive Editors

Edward Ellis III, Kazuo Shimozato

General Editor

Daniel Buchbinder

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Tooth luxation, avulsion (total luxation)

Definition and clinical appearance

Tooth avulsion is different from all other dental injuries in that the tooth is completely luxated out of its socket and in most cases has to sustain a period of extraoral storage.
Prognosis is dependent on the degree of periodontal ligament injury and the time and type of extraoral storage. Drying of the tooth is particularly detrimental to the prognosis. Therefore every effort should be focused on maintaining the tooth moist, preferably in a medium of physiologic osmolarity (saliva, milk, saline, or tissue culture media).

Tooth avulsion

Clinical findings

The tooth is out of its socket, and radiographic examination has excluded intrusive luxation. The patient frequently presents the tooth exhibiting with varying degree of contamination, periodontal ligament injury, and/or dryness, unless kept moist.


Radiographic findings

X-ray shows an empty socket and no signs of intrusive luxation.
In this case, there is no associated fracture of the socket.

Empty socket and no signs of intrusive luxation
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