Authors of section


Nicolas Homsi, Paulo Rodrigues, Gregorio Sánchez Aniceto, Beat Hammer, Scott Bartlett

Executive Editors

Edward Ellis III, Eduardo Rodriguez

General Editor

Daniel Buchbinder

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Mandibular malunion - TMJ Dysfunction

TMJ dysfunction may be caused by malunion. Malunion is defined as bone healing of a non-reduced fracture. This is possible because a perfect reduction is not necessary for bony union to occur.

It normally occurs as a consequence of inadequate reduction and/or fixation, or no treatment at all.

Besides the routine patient history and health status, the examiner should obtain details on previous treatment or treatments (eg. dates, procedures and complications).

Physical examination should focus on facial asymmetries, limitation of mandibular movements, and malocclusions.