Authors of section


Nicolas Homsi, Paulo Rodrigues, Gregorio Sánchez Aniceto, Beat Hammer, Scott Bartlett

Executive Editors

Edward Ellis III, Eduardo Rodriguez

General Editor

Daniel Buchbinder

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Mandibular malunion - Malocclusion

Malocclusion may be caused by malunion. Malunion is defined as bone healing of a non-reduced fracture. This is possible because a perfect reduction is not necessary for bony union to occur.

It normally occurs as a consequence of inadequate reduction and/or fixation, or no treatment at all.

Malunion of the mandible

The radiograph will show partially or fully healed malreduced fracture of the mandible. The shape of the mandible will not be anatomical.

Besides the routine patient history and health status, the examiner should obtain details on previous treatment or treatments (eg. dates, procedures and complications).

Physical examination should focus on facial asymmetries, limitation of mandibular movements, and malocclusions.