Authors of section


Brian Burkey, Neal Futran

Executive Editors

Gregorio Sánchez Aniceto, Marcelo Figari

General Editor

Daniel Buchbinder

Open all credits

Temporalis muscle flap

1. Introduction

If functional dental restoration is not indicated and an obturator is not desired, reconstruction can be done with soft tissue only. The choice of local regional flap is based on the size of the defect, arc of rotation of the flap and surgeon's preference. It has the advantage of being a regional tissue option with a healthy blood supply.

The temporalis muscle flap provides a bulky vascular tissue reconstruction. The donor site requires replacement of the missing muscle to prevent temporal hollow deformity.

Reconstruction of midface Brown II defect: Temporoparietal flap

2. Approach

For this procedure the Weber Ferguson approach to the midface is utilized.

Reconstruction of midface Brown II defect

3. Resection

Defining the area of resection

The proposed osteotomy lines are marked on the maxilla (eg. with a Bovie cautery). Care is taken to resect at least 1 cm of normal tissue on each side of the tumor.

Reconstruction of midface Brown II defect

Palatal incision

An incision is made in the palate to maintain a 1 cm margin around the tumor. This can be done with a surgical blade or a needle tip cautery.

Reconstruction of midface Brown II defect


Teeth on either side of the tumor may be removed for easier access, but is usually not necessary.

Reconstruction of midface Brown II defect

Utilizing either sagittal or reciprocating saws, an osteotomy is made in the anterior maxillary wall.

Reconstruction of midface Brown II defect

A second osteotomy is made along the palate around the tumor. Osteotomes can be used to complete the bony cuts and the segment is mobilized.

Reconstruction of midface Brown II defect

If the resection extends to the maxillary tuberosity, a fine curved osteotome is used with the curvature pointing downwards to complete the cut, and to separate the posterior maxilla from the pterygoid plate.

Reconstruction of midface Brown II defect

Pitfall: An upward oriented osteotome will not reliably separate the posterior maxilla and palate from the pterygoid. It is also associated with increased danger of bleeding from the pterygoid plexus and internal maxillary artery.

Reconstruction of midface Brown II defect

Tumor delivery

The remaining soft tissues are incised with electrocautery and the tumor is delivered.

The nasal mucosa can either be preserved or excised depending on the involvement of the tumor.

The specimen is submitted en bloc for permanent pathological examination.

Surgical margins are now checked with frozen sections to ensure the adequacy of the tumor resection.

Reconstruction of midface Brown II defect

4. Reconstruction

Exposure of the temporalis flap

A Y-type incision is made starting in the pretragal area extending superiorly to the temporalis region. The vertical third of the incision is split into a Y to gain adequate exposure. The depth of the incision goes to the temporalis muscle fascia.

Reconstruction of midface Brown I defect - Alveolus: Temporalis muscle flap

Depending on the amount of muscle necessary to restore the palatal defect, parallel incisions are made with electrocautery through the temporalis muscle down to bone ensuring that a branch of the deep temporal vessels is captured.

Reconstruction of midface Brown II defect: Temporoparietal flap

Starting from the top edge of the temporalis muscle, the flap is elevated off the skull, below to the zygomatic arch.

Reconstruction of midface Brown I defect - Alveolus: Temporalis muscle flap

To replace the missing temporalis muscle, placing either acellular dermis or abdominal fat and suturing it to the adjacent muscle will recreate the temporal contour.

An alternative is to use a porous polyethylene prosthesis screwed to the temporal bone, filling the defect.

Reconstruction of midface Brown II defect: Temporoparietal flap

The donor site incision is closed in layers with deep absorbable sutures and 5-0 permanent suture.

Reconstruction of midface Brown I defect - Alveolus: Temporalis muscle flap

Insetting of the flap

The flap is transferred into its preplanned position by tunneling it deep to the zygomatic arch to seal the defect. Great care is taken not to create undue torsion or tension within the pedicle.

Reconstruction of midface Brown II defect: Temporoparietal flap

The flap is sutured to the buccal and palatal mucosa along the resection edge with resorbable suture to create a water tight seal.

Reconstruction of midface Brown II defect: Temporoparietal flap

5. Rehabilitation following midface resection and reconstruction


The use of the following perioperative medication is controversial. There is little evidence to make strong recommendations for postoperative medications.

  • Analgesia as necessary
  • Antibiotics (many surgeons use perioperative antibiotics). There is no clear advantage of any one antibiotic but evidence supports their use for 24h. The spectrum should be according to the existing bacterial flora, especially in the combined intra and extra cranial procedures.
  • Steroids may help with postoperative edema.
  • Regular perioral and oral wound care has to include disinfectant mouth rinse, lip care, etc.
  • Antibiotic ointment is used on the wounds for 72 hours
  • If a free flap is utilized for the reconstruction, 100 mg of aspirin/day is recommended.

Wound care

Remove sutures from skin after approximately 7 days if nonresorbable sutures have been used. If the patient has had previous radiation, the sutures should be left in for 10 – 14 days.
Moisturizing lotion should be used on the skin wounds to minimize excessive scarring after sutures are removed.

Avoid sun exposure and tanning to skin incisions for several months.


Diet depends on the reconstructive method. For patients who have obturators placed, initial liquid diet followed by a soft diet as tolerated is initiated after surgery.

For patients with free flap reconstruction of the maxilla, a feeding tube is placed during sugery allowing the patient to be kept nil per os for 5-7 days. If issues develop with velopharyngeal insufficiency or dysphagia, assessment by a speech and swallowing rehabilitation specialist may be indicated. When the lateral nasal wall is reconstructed, especially when a bulky soft tissue flap is used, the nasal airway should be stented with gauze packing or a merocel sponge for five days.

Clinical follow-up

Typically the patients are seen in clinical follow-up one week after discharge, and then on a weekly basis until such time the clinician determines that less frequent follow ups are needed.

Oral hygiene

Patients with intraoral incisions and/or wounds must be instructed in appropriate oral hygiene procedures. A soft toothbrush (dipped in warm water to make it softer) should be used to clean the surfaces of the teeth. Chlorhexidine oral rinses should be prescribed and used at least 3 times a day to help sanitize the mouth. For larger debris, a 1:1 mixture of hydrogen peroxide/chlorhexidine can be used. The bubbling action of the hydrogen peroxide helps remove debris.

Reconstruction with obturator

For individuals reconstructed with a maxillary prosthesis, the surgical packing is left for seven to ten days postoperatively. The patient will need to remain on appropriate gram positive antibiotic coverage over that time.

Upon returning to clinic, the patient is seen by the maxillofacial prosthodontist and the obturator and the packing are removed, the cavity is cleaned and inspected and the patient is then started on frequent nasal saline irrigations and home humidification. The obturator is modified as needed and replaced.

Over time, the maxillary prosthesis can be altered to best fit the evolving defect.

Reconstruction with free flap

When a free flap is utilized, it should be regularly monitored to ensure vascular integrity. Physical examination, assessing the flap color, turgidity, and capillary refill should be routine for at least the first 48 hours postoperatively. Hand-held Doppler probes can be used to assess blood flow. In case of doubt of the vitality of the flap, pin-prick assessment with a 25 gauge needle to look for bright red bleeding.. In cases of buried flaps, an implantable Doppler placed just distal to the venous anastomosis can be utilized

Radial forearm free flap
The radial forearm free flap donor site should be closed with a skin graft and a bolster placed over the area. The arm is then cast or placed in a volar splint for 7 days prior to removal to ensure graft take. If bone is taken and the radius plated, appropriate follow-up with an orthopedic or hand specialist should be arranged.

Fibula free flap
After a fibula free flap, the donor lower leg should be cast with the ankle slightly dorsiflexed for 5 days. The patient can touch-down their body weight as tolerated. After the cast is removed they can ambulate and work with physical therapy to optimize leg function. A splint should be placed to keep the foot flexed when in bed.

Scapula free flap
Flaps from the subscapular system require no particular rehabilitation care but closed suction drains should remain until a minimal output is still draining to avoid seroma formation.

Rectus abdominous and iliac crest
Rectus abdominous and iliac crest donor sites require that the patient not strain or lift heavy objects for at least 4 weeks to avoid hernia formation.

Anterolateral thigh
Patients should avoid climbing stairs for 2-4 weeks after surgery. They should also be observed for seroma formation at the wound bed.

Furthermore, patients often need physical therapy to rehabilitate the donor site.