Authors of section

Authors

Brian Burkey, Neal Futran

Executive Editors

Gregorio Sánchez Aniceto, Marcelo Figari

General Editor

Daniel Buchbinder

Open all credits

Palatal island flap

1. Introduction

These defects are typically small volume and do not have a dental alveolar component. An oral nasal fistula is usually present. The main goal is to cover and/or to obliterate the defect.

This is a readily available local option for reconstruction of small posterior palatal defects. One greater palatine artery must be intact and the reach of the flap is limited by the arch of rotation.

Reconstruction of midface Brown I defect - Palate: Palatal island flap

2. Resection

Marking of the osteotomy lines

The proposed osteotomy lines are marked on the palate (eg. with a Bovie cautery). Care is taken to resect at least 1 cm of normal tissue around the tumor.

Reconstruction of midface Brown I defect - Palate

Incision of the palate

An incision is made in the palate with either a #15 blade or a Bovie cautery to minimize blood loss. A 1 cm margin should be maintained around the tumor.

Reconstruction of midface Brown I defect - Palate

Osteotomies

Utilizing either sagittal or reciprocating saws, an osteotomy is made in the palatal bone around the tumor. Osteotomes can be used to complete the bony cuts (separate the nasal septum from the maxillary crest with an osteotome if necessary) and the segment is mobilized.

Reconstruction of midface Brown I defect - Palate

Tumor delivery

The remaining soft tissues are incised with electrocautery and the tumor is delivered.

The nasal mucosa can either be preserved or excised depending on the tumor invasion.

The specimen is submitted en bloc for permanent pathological examination.

Surgical margins are now checked with frozen sections to ensure the adequacy of the tumor resection.

Reconstruction of midface Brown I defect - Palate

3. Reconstruction

Incision and elevation of palatal flap

An incision is made 5 mm below the palatal gingival margin down to the palatal bone. It is extended around the greater palatine foramen and beyond the palatal defect.

Reconstruction of midface Brown I defect - Palate: Palatal island flap

The flap is elevated off the palatal bone with a periosteal elevator. Care has to be taken not to injure the blood vessels as they emerge from the foramen.

Reconstruction of midface Brown I defect - Palate: Palatal island flap

Positioning of palatal flap

The flap is rotated into its preplanned position to seal the palate with care not to create undue torsion or tension within the pedicle.

The flap is sutured to the cut edge of the palate circumferentially with resorbable suture to create a water tight seal.

The exposed anterior bone is left to granulate, sometimes protected by medicated gauze, and to heal by secondary intention.

Reconstruction of midface Brown I defect - Palate: Palatal island flap

4. Rehabilitation following midface resection and reconstruction

Medication

The use of the following perioperative medication is controversial. There is little evidence to make strong recommendations for postoperative medications.

  • Analgesia as necessary
  • Antibiotics (many surgeons use perioperative antibiotics). There is no clear advantage of any one antibiotic but evidence supports their use for 24h. The spectrum should be according to the existing bacterial flora, especially in the combined intra and extra cranial procedures.
  • Steroids may help with postoperative edema.
  • Regular perioral and oral wound care has to include disinfectant mouth rinse, lip care, etc.
  • Antibiotic ointment is used on the wounds for 72 hours
  • If a free flap is utilized for the reconstruction, 100 mg of aspirin/day is recommended.

Wound care

Remove sutures from skin after approximately 7 days if nonresorbable sutures have been used. If the patient has had previous radiation, the sutures should be left in for 10 – 14 days.
Moisturizing lotion should be used on the skin wounds to minimize excessive scarring after sutures are removed.

Avoid sun exposure and tanning to skin incisions for several months.

Diet

Diet depends on the reconstructive method. For patients who have obturators placed, initial liquid diet followed by a soft diet as tolerated is initiated after surgery.

For patients with free flap reconstruction of the maxilla, a feeding tube is placed during sugery allowing the patient to be kept nil per os for 5-7 days. If issues develop with velopharyngeal insufficiency or dysphagia, assessment by a speech and swallowing rehabilitation specialist may be indicated. When the lateral nasal wall is reconstructed, especially when a bulky soft tissue flap is used, the nasal airway should be stented with gauze packing or a merocel sponge for five days.

Clinical follow-up

Typically the patients are seen in clinical follow-up one week after discharge, and then on a weekly basis until such time the clinician determines that less frequent follow ups are needed.

Oral hygiene

Patients with intraoral incisions and/or wounds must be instructed in appropriate oral hygiene procedures. A soft toothbrush (dipped in warm water to make it softer) should be used to clean the surfaces of the teeth. Chlorhexidine oral rinses should be prescribed and used at least 3 times a day to help sanitize the mouth. For larger debris, a 1:1 mixture of hydrogen peroxide/chlorhexidine can be used. The bubbling action of the hydrogen peroxide helps remove debris.

Reconstruction with obturator

For individuals reconstructed with a maxillary prosthesis, the surgical packing is left for seven to ten days postoperatively. The patient will need to remain on appropriate gram positive antibiotic coverage over that time.

Upon returning to clinic, the patient is seen by the maxillofacial prosthodontist and the obturator and the packing are removed, the cavity is cleaned and inspected and the patient is then started on frequent nasal saline irrigations and home humidification. The obturator is modified as needed and replaced.

Over time, the maxillary prosthesis can be altered to best fit the evolving defect.

Reconstruction with free flap

When a free flap is utilized, it should be regularly monitored to ensure vascular integrity. Physical examination, assessing the flap color, turgidity, and capillary refill should be routine for at least the first 48 hours postoperatively. Hand-held Doppler probes can be used to assess blood flow. In case of doubt of the vitality of the flap, pin-prick assessment with a 25 gauge needle to look for bright red bleeding.. In cases of buried flaps, an implantable Doppler placed just distal to the venous anastomosis can be utilized

Radial forearm free flap
The radial forearm free flap donor site should be closed with a skin graft and a bolster placed over the area. The arm is then cast or placed in a volar splint for 7 days prior to removal to ensure graft take. If bone is taken and the radius plated, appropriate follow-up with an orthopedic or hand specialist should be arranged.

Fibula free flap
After a fibula free flap, the donor lower leg should be cast with the ankle slightly dorsiflexed for 5 days. The patient can touch-down their body weight as tolerated. After the cast is removed they can ambulate and work with physical therapy to optimize leg function. A splint should be placed to keep the foot flexed when in bed.

Scapula free flap
Flaps from the subscapular system require no particular rehabilitation care but closed suction drains should remain until a minimal output is still draining to avoid seroma formation.

Rectus abdominous and iliac crest
Rectus abdominous and iliac crest donor sites require that the patient not strain or lift heavy objects for at least 4 weeks to avoid hernia formation.

Anterolateral thigh
Patients should avoid climbing stairs for 2-4 weeks after surgery. They should also be observed for seroma formation at the wound bed.

Furthermore, patients often need physical therapy to rehabilitate the donor site.