Authors of section


Boaz Arzi

Executive Editor

Amy Kapatkin

General Editor

Frank Verstraete

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Fractures of the ramus of the mandible including the coronoid process

Fracture characteristics

Fractures of the ramus of the mandible may be unilateral or bilateral and are usually simple fractures.


Fractures of the coronoid process may be unilateral or bilateral and are usually simple fractures. The robust masseter and temporal muscles that cover the coronoid process, and the position of the zygomatic arch, are somewhat protective of the coronoid process.


Introduction to mandibular fractures

Mandibular fractures can be classified into region of the mandible and severity of the fracture.

Mandible fracture classification

  1. Symphyseal separation
  2. Parasymphyseal
  3. Rostral
  4. Mandibular body
  5. Caudal mandible
  6. Ramus (including the coronoid process)
  7. Temporomandibular joint (mandibular head of the condylar process)


The mandible is complex because of the interaction of hard, soft tissues and teeth. The majority of the mandibular bone volume is occupied by teeth roots, blood vessels and nerves, making the application of internal fixation difficult.

The periodontal status of the teeth affects the bone quality of the mandible and should be considered when selecting the fracture fixation method.


In the mandible, form and function are interdependent. Minor anatomical malalignment affects the occlusion of the teeth and function.

Fracture comminution and soft tissue damage will affect the repair method chosen.


Cone beam CT of a dog presenting with multiple maxillofacial fractures, including bilateral simple coronoid fractures.

Other fractures present are: bilateral zygomatic arch fractures, fracture of the right squamous temporal bone (mandibular fossa), frontal sinus fracture.


CT scan of the same dog as above.