Authors of section


Ronald Lehman, Daniel Riew, Klaus Schnake

General Editor

Luiz Vialle

Open all credits

Effendi Type III

Displacement of the anterior fragment with the body of the axis in the flexed position; but in addition, the facet joints at C2-C3 are dislocated and locked. A type III lesion must be suspected when the body of the axis is in a position of extension or of forward listhesis.

Go to indication