Specific considerations for hybrid external fixation and the proximal tibia are given below.
2. Patient preparation
This procedure is normally performed with the patient in a supine position.
3. Wire placement
Planning of wire placement
2 mm diameter wires are recommended.
Placement of wires for proximal tibial fixation must be carefully planned.
Note: In addition to proximal ring and tensioned wires, the distal pins and frame, and its connection to the ring, must be planned for maximal stability.
Safe wire placement in the proximal tibia
A thorough knowledge of the anatomy is mandatory to perform the correct placement of the K-wires as they go through both cortices (see the safe zones). All the important neurovascular structures run in the posterior half of the cross section. Therefore the wire corridors must be chosen carefully.
Wires should be positioned as proximal as possible but not through the joint. The most proximal wire should be at least 14 mm below the articular surface because of the distal capsular insertion. If a wire is passed within this area, any infection tracking along the wire may lead to a septic arthritis.
With only two wires, stability is limited. Maintaining an overall arc of 60-80° between the wires improves stability. Adding a third wire or a threaded pin gives greater stability.
4. Ring placement
Insertion of wires
At least two wires must be used.
Make a stab incision and use blunt dissection down to the bone.
Insert the protection sleeve until it reaches the bone. Place the wire parallel to the knee joint under image intensification until it penetrates the far cortex. Finish wire insertion by hand, until the wire extends an equal length on both sides of the tibia. Make sure that the wire does not impale tendons or neurovascular structures.
Attaching ring to wires
Connect the wires with the ring and tighten the clamps.
Flexible wires must be under tension for mechanical stability. Generally, a tension of 100 kg force is appropriate.
Pearl While tensioning the second wire, the tension in the first may decrease due to ring deformation. Both wires should be retensioned to obtain better stability. If two tensioning devices are available, they can be used simultaneously to ensure equal tension in the two wires.
5. Pin insertion (tibial shaft)
For safe pin placement make use of the safe zones and be familiar with the anatomy of the lower leg.
Choice of tibial pin placement
Drilling a hole in the thick tibial crest may be associated with excessive heat generation and there is a risk the drill bit may slip medially or laterally damaging the soft tissues. As the anteromedial tibial wall provides adequate thickness for the placement of pins, this trajectory is preferable. A trajectory angle (relative to the sagittal plane) of 20-60° for the proximal fragment and of 30-90° for the distal fragment is recommended.
Alternatively, in order to avoid the frame catching on the opposite leg, the pins may be placed more anteriorly. The drill bit is started with the tip just medial to the anterior crest, and with the drill bit perpendicular to the anteromedial surface (A). As the drill bit starts to penetrate the surface, the drill is gradually moved more anteriorly until the drill bit is in the desired plane (B). This should prevent the tip from sliding down the medial or lateral surface.
6. Finalizing the hybrid external fixator
Choose safe locations for pin insertion on the anteromedial side of the tibia.
Place the proximal pin as close as possible to the fracture. The second pin must be positioned as distally as possible. The further the pins are apart, the more stable the construct will be.
Connect the pins with one rod and tighten the rod-to-pin clamps. Then, connect the rod to the ring. The rod-to-ring clamp is left loose enough to allow for manipulation.
Reduction and fixation
Reduce the segments using ring and rod as reduction handles. Restore length, alignment and rotation. Check reduction clinically and with image intensification.
If reduction is satisfactory, tighten the rod-to-ring clamp.
For additional stability of the frame, at least one or preferably two tubes should be added to the construct.
For additional stability of the tibial head frame, one or two Schanz pins may be added and connected with the ring.
7. Aftercare following nonbridging external fixation
Compartment syndrome and nerve injury
Close monitoring of the tibial compartments should be carried out especially during the first 48 hours to rule out compartment syndrome.
The neurovascular status of the extremity must be carefully monitored. Impaired blood supply or developing neurological loss must be investigated as an emergency and dealt with expediently.
Various aftercare protocols to prevent pin track infection have been established by experts worldwide. Therefore, no standard protocol for pin-site care can be stated here. Nevertheless, the following points are recommended:
The aftercare should follow the same protocol until removal of the external fixator.
The pin/wire-insertion sites should be kept clean. Any crusts or exudates should be removed. The pins/wires may be cleaned with saline and/or disinfectant solution/alcohol. The frequency of cleaning depends on the circumstances and varies from daily to weekly but should be done in moderation.
No ointments or antibiotic solutions are recommended for routine pin-site care.
Dressings are not usually necessary once wound drainage has ceased.
Pin/wire-insertion sites need not be protected for showering or bathing with clean water.
The patient or the carer should learn and apply the cleaning routine.
Pin/wire loosening or pin track infection
In case of pin/wire loosening or pin track infection, the following steps need to be taken:
Remove all involved pins/wires and place new pins/wires in a healthy location.
Debride the pin sites in the operating theater, using curettage and irrigation.
Take specimens for a microbiological study to guide appropriate antibiotic treatment if necessary.
Before changing to a definitive internal fixation an infected pin track needs to heal. Otherwise infection will result.
Unless there are other injuries or complications, mobilization may be performed on day 1. Static quadriceps exercises with passive range of motion of the knee should be encouraged. Early active range of motion of knee and ankle is encouraged.
Following any injury, and also after surgery, the neurovascular status of the extremity must be carefully monitored. Impaired blood supply or developing neurological loss must be investigated as an emergency and dealt with expediently. See (compartment syndrome) for more details. The goal of early active and passive range of motion is to achieve as full range of motion as possible within the first 4 - 6 weeks. Optimal stability should be achieved at the time of surgery, in order to allow early range of motion exercises.
Partial weight bearing may be allowed only in extraarticular metaphyseal fractures. Weight bearing is usually avoided in the treatment of articular fractures.
The timing and how much weight may be taken through the fracture will be influenced by:
Stability of the fixator construct
See patient 7-10 days after surgery for a wound check. X-rays are taken to check the reduction.
Frequency of outpatient follow-up depends on the complexity of the injury and on the compliance of the patient. The follow-up visits should not be spaced more than three weeks apart.