Authors of section


Richard Buckley, Andrew Sands, Michael Castro, Christina Kabbash

Executive Editors

Joseph Schatzker, Richard Buckley

Open all credits

Recommended reading

1. Classic references

Den Hartog BD. Fracture of the proximal fifth metatarsal. J Am Acad Orthop Surg . 2009 Jul;17(7):458–464.

2. Review references

Rosenbaum A, DiPreta J, Tartaglione J, et al. Acute fractures of the tarsal navicular: a critical analysis review. J Bone Joint Surg Rev. 2015;3(3):e5.

Arastu MH, Buckley RE. Tarsometatarsal joint complex and midtarsal injuries. Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech. 2012;79:21–30.

Benirschke SK, Meinberg EG, Anderson SA, et al. Fractures and dislocations of the midfoot: Lisfranc and Chopart injuries. Instr Course Lect . 2013;62:79 –91.

Welck M, Zinchenko R, Rudge B. Lisfranc injuries. Injury . 2015 Apr;46(4):536–541.

Rammelt S, Heineck J, Zwipp H. Metatarsal fractures. Injury . 2004 Sep;35 Suppl 2:SB77–86.

3. Further references

Zwipp H, Baumgart F, Cronier P, et al. Integral classification of injuries (ICI) to the bones, joints, and ligaments—application to injuries of the foot. Injury . 2004;35( Suppl 2):3–9.

Rosenbaum AJ, Uhl RL, DiPreta JA. Acute fractures of the tarsal navicular. Orthopedics. 2014;37(8):541–546.

van Raaij TM, Duffy PJ, Buckley RE. Displaced isolated cuboid fractures. Foot Ankle Int. 2010 Mar;31(3):242–246.

Richter M, Wipperman B, Krettek C, et al. Fractures and fracture dislocations of the midfoot: occurrence, causes and long-term results. Foot Ankle Int. 2001 May;22(5):392–398.

Arastu MH, Buckley RE. Tarsometatarsal joint complex and midtarsal injuries. Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech . 2012;79:21 –30.

Sharma S, Dhillon MS, Sharma G, et al. Nutcracker cuboid fractures are never isolated injuries. J Foot Ankle Surg (Asia-Pacific). 2014;1(1):9–11.

van Dorp KB, de Vries MR, van der Elst M, et al. Chopart joint injury: a study of outcome and morbidity. J Foot Ankle Surg . 2010 Nov-Dec;49(6):541–545.

Richter M, Thermann H, Huefner T, et al. Chopart joint fracture-dislocation: initial open reduction provides better outcome than closed reduction . Foot Ankle Int. 2004 May;25(5):340–348.

Kuo RS, Tejwani NC, DiGiovanni CW, et al. Outcome after open reduction and internal fixation of Lisfranc joint injuries. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2000 Nov;82- A( 11):1609–1618.

Mulier T, Reynders P, Dereymaekar G, et al. Severe Lisfranc injuries: primary arthrodesis or ORIF? Foot Ankle Int. 2002 Oct;23(10):902–905.

Thevendran G, Deol RS, Calder JD. Fifth metatarsal fractures in the athlete: evidence for management. Foot Ankle Clin . 2013 Jun;18(2):237–254.

Chandran P, Puttaswamaiah R, Dhillon MS, et al. Management of complex open fracture injuries of the midfoot with external fixation. J Foot Ankle Surg . 2006 Sep-Oct;45(5):308–315.

Kinner B, Tietz S, Müller F, et al. Outcome after complex trauma of the foot. J Trauma. 2011 Jan;70(1):159–168.

Ellington JK, Bosse MJ, Castillo RC, et al. The mangled foot and ankle: results from a 2-year prospective study. J Orthop Trauma. 2013 Jan;27(1):43–48.