Authors of section


Richard Buckley, Andrew Sands, Michael Castro, Christina Kabbash

Executive Editors

Joseph Schatzker, Richard Buckley

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Hallux, proximal phalanx, base, intraarticular, comminuted

Mechanism of the injury

These fractures usually result from a high impact trauma or crush injury.

Hallux - Base, intraarticular, comminuted


Conventional radiographs of the great toe. AP and lateral oblique views are sufficient for diagnosis and treatment.

The image shows an x-ray of comminuted base of first and second proximal phalanges.


Clinical signs

The clinical picture includes swelling, ecchymosis, and pain with range of motion. In some fractures, a deformity may be present.

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