Authors of section


Richard Buckley, Andrew Sands, Michael Castro, Christina Kabbash

Executive Editors

Joseph Schatzker, Richard Buckley

Open all credits

2nd-5th row, proximal phalanx, head, intraarticular

Mechanism of the injury

These fractures usually result from a low impact (stubbing the toe) or crush injury (dropped object).



Conventional radiographs of the forefoot/lesser toe. AP and lateral oblique views are sufficient for diagnosis and treatment.

Clinical signs

The clinical picture includes swelling, ecchymosis, and pain with range of motion of the PIP joint. In some fractures, a deformity may be present.

Go to indication