Authors of section

Authors

Ricardo Cienfuegos, Carl-Peter Cornelius, Edward Ellis III, George Kushner

Executive Editors

Marcelo Figari, Gregorio Sánchez Aniceto

General Editor

Daniel Buchbinder

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Angle and ramus, complex

Imaging

Commonly the alveolar process and the teeth are involved in comminuted fractures. Often, fragments containing teeth have to be removed as they have no mucosal connection.

Comminution often results in nonviable bone fragments and thus in a bone defect of variable size.

Complex fractures of the mandibular angle and ramus

Routine diagnosis of this type of fracture should include x-rays taken in two planes at 90° to each other; the minimum requirement is a PA view and a panoramic view.
CT or digital volume tomography (DVT) imaging may be extremely useful in cases of comminuted fractures.

Example of a comminuted angle fracture.

Complex fractures of the mandibular angle and ramus

Basal triangle (wedge) fracture

X-rays show a basal triangle fracture.

Complex fractures of the mandibular angle and ramus
Complex fractures of the mandibular angle and ramus