Authors of section

General Editor

Daniel Buchbinder


Alexander Schramm, Marc Metzger, Nils Gellrich, Bradley Strong

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Virtual planning and intraoperative navigation

1. Introduction


Secondary orbital correction can benefit from virtual planning of the procedure and intraoperative navigation to ensure proper execution of the plan.

Whenever an intraoperative CT scanner is available, an intraoperative scan should be obtained for intraoperative evaluation of the correction.

Any secondary orbital correction benefits from intraoperative CT scanning which can be fused to the virtual plan to determine the adequacy of the corrective procedure.


The correction of secondary orbital deformities is more difficult than treating acute orbital defects. It therefore is helpful to use computer assisted techniques to plan and perform complex reconstructions.

The workflow is identical to the primary treatment of the same injury. For a detailed description please refer to the trauma section.

In secondary corrections it is recommended to perform an overcorrection of globe position resulting in approximately 2 mm of sagittal projection. This can be performed by placing additional material posterior to the equator of the globe at the lateral orbital wall.