Authors of section


Nicolas Homsi, Paulo Rodrigues, Gregorio Sánchez Aniceto, Beat Hammer, Scott Bartlett

Executive Editors

Edward Ellis III, Eduardo Rodriguez

General Editor

Daniel Buchbinder

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Malreduction of body, angle, ramus

Malreduction is the non-anatomic reduction of a fracture in the immediate postoperative period.

If malreduction is detected after fixation has been applied or before bony union has occurred, malunion can be avoided by early intervention.

Malreduction can be diagnosed either through clinical examination or postoperative imaging.

The patient with malreduction can present with a malocclusion.

In non-operatively treated condyle fractures, reduction is not intended. However, bone remodeling and a functional mandible is expected despite lack of anatomic reduction at the fracture site.

Besides the routine patient history and health status, the examiner should obtain details on previous treatment(s) (eg. dates, procedures and complications).

Physical examination should focus on facial asymmetries, limitation of mandibular movements, malocclusions, mobility of the mal reduced fracture, and the presence of infection.

Malreduction of the mandible